As tonalc2 said above, most of hotels offers breakfast to guests between 7am to 10am. With a budget of $150 you can get a very good hotel in san francisco.
I will post a list above of some hotels in that area, some of them are more than $150 budget so you may want to check each to see which fits best to you.
Best Western Tuscan Inn at Fisherman's Wharf
425 N Point Street,
San Francisco, CA, 94133, United States
Distance from City Center: 2.19m / 3.53km
Holiday Inn San Francisco Fishermans Wharf
1300 COLUMBUS AVENUE
SAN FRANCISCO, CA 94133 UNITED STATES
Hotel Front Desk: 1-415-7719000 | Hotel Fax: 1-415-7717006 http://www.holidayinn.com/h/d/hi/1/en/ho...
Sheraton Fisherman's Wharf Hotel ( From $149 per night)
2500 Mason Street · San Francisco, CA · 94133
Phone (415) 362-5500 http://www.sheratonatthewharf.com/
Confort Inn by the Bay ( 1 mile from Fishermans Wharf. From $123 per night)
2775 Van Ness Ave
San Francisco, CA, 94109
Hilton San Francisco Financial District ( 1 Mile from Fishermans Wharf. From $139 per night)
750 Kearny St
San Francisco, CA, 94108
See a complete list on this site. And if the hotel is a little bit far from Fisherman Wharf area, you can use public transportation. San Francisco has a really good public transportation system. http://www.hotels.com/processRefineSearc...
Good luck and hope my answer helps